Sobre o conteúdo
Biomarkers are the subject of considerable interest by scientists and researchers worldwide: they determine the use of targeted treatments (a major therapeutic advance in medicine), allow to measure the evolution of a disease or to indicate a particular physiological event.
After a period of enthusiasm, it is clear that the development of reliable biomarkers is long and complex and must respect rigorous methodological constraints. Due to the extraordinary development of genomics and proteomics and the exposure of the Institut Pasteur international network (IPIN) to emerging diseases, the Institut Pasteur is particularly well-positioned to study the interest of biomarkers for diseases diagnosis and prognosis in global health. The aim of this MOOC is to review the interest of biomarkers for public health, based in particular on the research activities of the thirty-three institutes of the Institut Pasteur international network.
This MOOC is organized into four chapters. The first chapter introduces the subject and delas with the definition and methodological aspects of biomarkers; the second chapter, based on targeted examples (HIV, arbovirus, malaria, tuberculosis, etc.), focuses on the use of biomarkers in infectious diseases. The third chapter is dedicated to biomarkers in oncology. The fourth chapter sheds light on the use of biomarkers in the context of non-communicable diseases (rare diseases, Alzheimer's disease, liver disease, etc.).
This MOOC revolves around two important points: first, the undeniable diagnostic, prognostic and / or therapeutic interest of biomarkers. At each stage of a patient’s care, from the diagnosis of a disease to its treatment, biomarkers are useful and make it possible to hope for a "personalized medicine". The second important point refers to the limits of most biomarkers: insufficient sensitivity or specificity; possible application to a subgroup of patients only, for a given pathology; short duration of their half-life, reducing their clinical relevance (due to the emergence of more effective biomarkers or therapeutic progress). Research on biomarkers remains essential to overcome these limitations, to define new combinations of different biomarkers and to optimize their performance and hence their use. We hope that this MOOC and the associated multiple-choice questions will clarify the use of bio-markers in tomorrow’s medicine and highlight both their advantages and limitations.
A bachelor of science is recommended to follow this MOOC.
Un niveau d’étude de Master1 est recommandé pour suivre les sessions de ce MOOC.
Programa de estudos
Chap I : Introduction
- Françoise Barré-Sinoussi : Biomarkers and IPIN
- Stanislas Pol : What are we up to with biomarkers?
- Antonin Ginguay : The role of CA 125 and HE4 in the history of biomarkers +
- Catherine Larue : Validation of biomarkers
- Arnaud Fontanet : Definition of a good biomarker from a statistical point of view
- Amalio Telenti : Use of pharmacogenetics
- Matthew Albert : Biomarkers: from research to industrial development
Chap II : Biomarkers in infectious diseases
- Iryna Nikolayeva : Systems Biology Lab and Functional Genetics of Infectious Diseases Unit
- Laetitia Velly : Early biomarkers for the diagnosis of bacterial infection in emergency departments
- Yves Germani : biomarkers for meningitis diagnostics
- Didier Ménard : Biomarks of resistance to artemisinin
- Béatrice Jacquelin : Creation of diagnostic tools in case of outbreak : the Ebola example
- Brigitte Gicquel : Biomarkers for multi-drug resistance tuberculosis
- Elhem Yacoub : Biomarkers for Serodiagnosis of Human Mollicutes Infections
- Sean Kennedy : Biomarkers of microbiota
- John Hiscott : Biomarkers for patients infected with Human T cell Leukemia Virus
- Desmukh Gopaul : A device for the detection of (re)-emerging arboviral diseases
Chap III : Biomarkers in oncology
- Dominique Bellet : Biomarkers and therapeutic indications in oncology
- Iradj Sobhani : Colon and Rectal Cancer (CRC) et Biomarkers
- Pascal Pineau : Biomarkers and HCC
Chap IV : Biomarkers in metabolic and inflammatory diseases
- Darragh Duffy : Ultrasensitive detection of protein biomarkers for diagnosis of rare diseases
- Wilson Savino : biomarkers for non-communicable diseases : the case of Duchesne distrophy
- Sofiane Samir Salah : biomarkers for non-communicable diseases : the case of rheumatoid arthritis
- Vincent Chouraki : Biomarkers in Alzheimer
- Cosmin Voican : Biomarkers of excessive alcoholic intake
Chap V : Conclusions
- Sara Eyangoh : Development of biomarkers in IPIN – perspectives for biomarkers in the future
- Marie-Astrid Vernet : Conclusion - Take home messages
Dr. Stanislas Pol
Dr. Stanislas Pol is Professor of Hepatology and Gastroenterology at Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris, France. He is the Head of the Liver department at Cochin Hospital, Paris, France. Dr. Pol’s research interests involve: 1. Hepato-virology (diagnosis and therapy of viral hepatitis, especially in populations with immune deficiency); 2. the management of hepatocellular carcinoma and 3. reversal of cirrhosis. He is the head of a group in the research Inserm unit 1223 studying the immune pathology of Hepatitis C virus infection, and the director of the Center of Translationnal Science of Institut Pasteur since 2015. He has published more than 300 primary and review articles in the field of liver diseases. He has previously chaired the coordinated action 24 of the French Agency for AIDS and Viral Hepatitis (ANRS: therapeutic trials in viral hepatitis) and he is the clinical head of the French ANRS Hepather (HBV and HCV hepatitis) cohort. Dr. Pol is also member of the French Biomedical Agency where he is responsible for derogations in transplantations indications.
Dr. Marie-Astrid Vernet, PhD
Dr. Marie-Astrid Vernet, PhD, worked from 2013 to 2016 at the Pasteur Center in Cameroon, as an Expert Senior Staff Scientist. Her research themes focus on respiratory infections, viral hemorrhagic fever, public health and outbreak investigation. She had previously worked at BioMérieux as a senior staff scientist, on (among other projects) a biomarker for heart failure management. She did her PhD both at the Institut Pasteur and at Inserm in Vaccinology.
Criador do conteúdo
O Institut Pasteur é uma fundação francesa privada, sem fins lucrativos, com sede em Paris, dedicada ao estudo da biologia, dos microrganismos, das doenças e das vacinas.
Criado em 1888 graças a uma subscrição pública internacional, tem o nome de Louis Pasteur1, o seu fundador e primeiro diretor, que em 1885 desenvolveu a primeira vacina contra a raiva.
Durante mais de um século, o Instituto Pasteur esteve na vanguarda da luta contra as doenças infecciosas. Em 1983, este organismo internacional de investigação foi o primeiro a isolar o vírus da imunodeficiência humana (VIH), o vírus que causa a síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida (SIDA). Ao longo dos anos, foi responsável por descobertas revolucionárias que permitiram à medicina controlar doenças virulentas como a difteria, o tétano, a tuberculose, a poliomielite, a gripe, a febre amarela, a peste epidémica, a hepatite B e a SIDA.
France Université Numérique est le diffuseur des cours en ligne des établissements d’enseignement supérieur français et de leurs partenaires.
Il opère plusieurs plateformes de diffusion, dont la plus connue, FUN MOOC, est la première plateforme académique francophone mondiale. Grâce à de nombreux établissements partenaires, cette plateforme propose un vaste catalogue de cours s’enrichissant de jour en jour avec des thématiques variées et d’actualité.