Viral Outbreaks and Pandemics : a One Health Approach
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date_range Starts on February 13, 2024
event_note Ends on April 10, 2024
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assignment Level : Advanced
chat_bubble_outline Language : English
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timer 28 hours in total

About the content

The number of viral outbreaks and pandemics has increased over the last half-century, including AIDS, Ebola, Zika and the main pandemics due to coronaviruses. The COVID-19 pandemic has illustrated the challenges of alert and management, and the interplay between biology, human sciences and politics.

The MOOC explains how most viral outbreaks stem from zoonoses. The main reservoirs of emerging viruses are mammals [DF1] and a few aquatic birds. Transmission can occur directly or through arthropods bites. Intermediate hosts may involve domestic animals that maintain the transmission cycle.

The spillover of viruses from wildlife to humans and the occurrence of pandemics are accelerated by viral mutations, and changes in life style and climate.

Surveillance of animal reservoirs, vectors and humans should allow for the detection of local outbreaks and the limitation of worldwide pandemics. Preparedness also encompasses resources to identify new pathogens, modeling of emergent infections, and the production of vaccines and treatments. A worldwide governance of such issues in a global health approach is mandatory to accelerate the response to pandemics.

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This MOOC is intended for biology students, from the undergraduate to the graduate level, doctors, teachers, researchers, and more generally for all those interested in emergent infectious diseases. A good scientific level is recommended to follow this MOOC (Bachelor of Science).



Chapter 1 : History and definitions
1-1 What are emerging infectious diseases ?: Arnaud Fontanet. (iP)
1-2 Emerging and reemerging viruses: Antoine Gessain. (IP)
1-3 The one health approach of emerging infectious diseases: Stephan Zientara (ENVA)
Chapter 2 : Animal reservoirs and Zoonoses
2-1 Introduction : analyze the main wild-life reservoirs and the mode of transmissions, indirect or direct, of emerging viruses to humans: Sophie Le Poder (ENVA)
2-2 Apes and link to HIV, HTLV, Ebola: Antoine Gessain (IP)
2-3 Human-nonhuman primate contact as a driver of viral emergence: Tamara Gilles-Vernick (IP)
2-4 Bats and link to Ebola, Nipah, Hendra and beta-coronaviruses: Meriadeg Le Gouil (Univ Caen)
2-5 Avian influenza viruses and link to flu pandemics: Jean-Claude Manuguerra. (IP)
2-6 Sylvatic cycles of arboviruses and link to urban transmission: Anne Lavergne. (IP Guyanne)
2-7 Changes in climate, deforestation, and natural disasters : Joacim Rocklöv (Univ Umea – Sweden)
Chapter 3 : Virologic molecular mechanisms of emergence
3-1 The multiple molecular mechanisms that contribute to virus adaptability, virulence, and emergence: Esteban Domingo (Univ Madrid)
3-2 Newly identified viruses at interfaces between reservoirs/vectors/humans: Marc Eloit (IP)
3-3 Molecular determinants of emergence of influenza A viruses : Sylvie van de Werf (UPC)
3-4 Molecular determinants of emergence of human beta-coronaviruses: Sylvie van der Werf (UPC)
3-5 Molecular determinants of adaptation of arboviruses to new Aedes vectors: Anna-Bella Failloux (IP)
Chapter 4 : Environmental and social factors of epidemic spread.
4-1 Increased movement of people, animals, and goods: François Gary & Chloé Le Gall-Ladevèze (Phylum, Colomiers)
4-2 Influence of urban dynamics: Pascal Handschumarer (Univ Strasbourg)
4-3 Expansion of Aedes aegypti and albopictus: Anna-Bella Failloux (IP)
4-4 Role of infections and transfusion in viral epidemics spread: Arnaud Fontanet (IP)
Chapter 5 : Pandemics
5-1 AIDS : Yazdan Yazdanpanah (UPC-ANRS)
5-2 Influenza : Sylvie van der Werf (UPC)
5-3 Ebola : Denis Malvy (Univ Bordeaux)
5-4 Zika : Arnaud Fontanet (IP)
5-5 SARS, MERS & COVID-19 : Arnaud Fontanet (IP)
5-6 Monkeypox : Antoine Gessain (IP)
Chapter 6 : Preparedness
6-1 Global surveillance – animals: Chadia Wannous (WOAH)
6-2 Global surveillance- humans – IHR – GOARN: Sylvie Briand – WHO)
6-3 Global surveillance - vectors: Norbert Becker (Univ Heidelberg)
6-4 Early intervention – CIBU: Jean-Claude Manuguerra (IP)
6-5 Modeling of early epidemic dynamics: Simon Cauchemez (IP)
6-6 Pathogen discovery tools: Nolwenn DHEILLY (IP)
6-7 Developing new vaccines against emerging viruses – CEPI: Brigitte Autran (SU-COVARS)
6-8 Anticipating social behaviours during pandemics: Anna Friedler (EHESP)
6-9 From Science to Politics: Didier Houssin (OMS-APHP International)



Pierre-Emmanuel Ceccaldi
Director of the MOOC, Pierre-Emmanuel Ceccaldi is Professor at Université Paris Cité and Team Leader in the Epidemiology and Pathophysiology of Oncogenic Viruses Unit, Institut Pasteur. He is the co-director of the Fundamental Virology course at the Institut Pasteur. His work is focused on the interactions of different viruses with host barriers (blood-brain barrier, intestinal barrier…), and neuromuscular system.

Arnaud Fontanet
Director of the MOOC, Arnaud Fontanet is Director of the Epidemiology of Emerging Diseases Unit at the Institut Pasteur and Professor of Health and Development at the CNAM. He has a doctorate in medicine (Université Paris V) and in public health (Harvard University).

Jean-Pierre Vartanian
Director of the MOOC, Jean-Pierre Vartanian is Associate Professor at Institut Pasteur in the Virology Department. He is the co-director of the Fundamental Virology course at the Institut Pasteur. His work is focused on identifying restriction factors involved in viral replication and the role of cellular RNA/DNA editing enzymes with antiviral activity against a range of human pathogens.

Stephan Zientara
Director of the MOOC, Stéphan Zientara was awarded a doctorate in veterinary medicine in 1987 and a university doctorate in 1995, obtaining his HDR in 2001. Stéphan Zientara is Director of the Anses Animal Health Laboratory in Maisons-Alfort (France), Director of the European Union Reference Laboratory for Equine Diseases and Deputy Director of the European Union Reference Laboratory for Foot and Mouth Disease.

Laurie Pinaud
Community manager of the MOOC. Laurie Pinaud holds a PhD in microbiology and an MPH in epidemiology and public health. She took part in 2015 in the response to the Ebola epidemic outbreak in West Africa with the Pasteur Institute task force. Since 2020, she is a clinical research project manager within the Emerging diseases epidemiology unit of the Pasteur Institute, where she coordinates COVID-19 studies.


Content Designer

Institut Pasteur

The Institut Pasteur is a private, not-for-profit French foundation based in Paris, dedicated to the study of biology, micro-organisms, diseases and vaccines.

Created in 1888 thanks to an international public subscription, it is named after Louis Pasteur1, its founder and first director, who in 1885 developed the first vaccine against rabies.

For over a century, the Institut Pasteur has been at the forefront of the fight against infectious diseases. In 1983, this international research organisation was the first to isolate the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the virus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Over the years, it has been responsible for revolutionary discoveries that have enabled medicine to control virulent diseases such as diphtheria, tetanus, tuberculosis, poliomyelitis, influenza, yellow fever, epidemic plague, hepatitis B and AIDS.




France Université Numérique is the broadcaster of the online courses of French higher education institutions and their partners.

It operates several platforms of diffusion, of which the best known, FUN MOOC, is the first French-speaking academic platform worldwide. Thanks to many partner institutions, this platform offers a vast catalog of courses enriched daily with various themes and current events.

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