About the content
The Civil War and Reconstruction - 1865-1890: The Unfinished Revolution , examines the pivotal but misunderstood era of Reconstruction that followed the Civil War, the first effort in American history to construct an interracial democracy. Beginning with a discussion of the dramatic change in historians’ interpretations of the period in the last two generations, the course goes on to discuss how Reconstruction turned on issues of continued relevance today. Among these are: who is an American citizen and what are citizens’ rights; what is the relationship between political and economic freedom; which has the primary responsibility for protecting Americans’ rights – the federal or state governments; and how should public authorities respond to episodes of terrorism? The course explores the rewriting of the laws and Constitution to incorporate the principle of equality regardless of race; the accomplishments and failings of Reconstruction governments in the South; the reasons for violent opposition in the South and for the northern retreat from Reconstruction; and the consolidation at the end of the nineteenth century of a new system of white supremacy.
This course is part of the XSeries, Civil War and Reconstruction , which introduces students to the most pivotal era in American history. The Civil War transformed the nation by eliminating the threat of secession and destroying the institution of slavery. It raised questions that remain central to our understanding of ourselves as a people and a nation – the balance of power between local and national authority, the boundaries of citizenship, and the meanings of freedom and equality. The XSeries will examine the causes of the war, the road to secession, the conduct of the Civil War, the coming of emancipation, and the struggle after the war to breathe meaning into the promise of freedom for four million emancipated slaves. One theme throughout the XSeries is what might be called the politics of history – how the world in which a historian lives affects his or her view of the past, and how historical interpretations reinforce or challenge the social order of the present.
- The dramatic change in historians’ interpretations of the period in the last two generations
- How Reconstruction turned on issues of continued relevance today, such as:
- Who is an American citizen and what are citizens’ rights?
- What is the relationship between political and economic freedom?
- Which has the primary responsibility for protecting Americans’ rights – the federal or state governments?
- How should public authorities respond to episodes of terrorism?
- Rewriting of the laws and Constitution to incorporate the principle of equality regardless of race
- The accomplishments and failings of Reconstruction governments in the South
- The reasons for violent opposition in the South and for the northern retreat from Reconstruction
- The consolidation at the end of the nineteenth century of a new system of white supremacy
DeWitt Clinton Professor of History
Graduate student in History
Columbia University Center for Teaching and Learning
Columbia University is a private university located in Morningside Heights, in the north-western part of the borough of Manhattan, in New York (United States). Its origins lie in King's College, founded in 1754 by King George II of Great Britain. It is one of the oldest institutions of higher learning in the United States and is part of the Ivy League group of eight of the country's oldest, most famous, most prestigious and most elitist universities.
Columbia is one of the most selective and prestigious universities in the world. The admission rate was 5.1% in 2019, comparable to Harvard and Stanford. Ranked first in the United States for research, it is sixth in the world (fourth in the United States) in the CUWR ranking of the world's top 1,000 universities and eighth in the Shanghai University Rankings.
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